Software development technology is constantly evolving, with innovation as its driving force. To stay competitive, businesses and developers must understand core tech stack components. Why?
Your tech stack serves as the bedrock of your project. Knowing its inner workings helps you choose the right tech stack. But if you find it complicated to demystify tech stack components, don’t worry. We’ve got you covered.
In this blog, we will look into the tools and trends so you can make informed decisions about your digital infrastructure.
Operating System: The Digital Canvas
The operating system (OS) serves as the underlying software layer that manages and controls the hardware resources of a computer or server. It acts as an intermediary between the hardware and other software applications.
Your choice of OS within a tech stack depends on various factors. Consider its specific use case, hardware requirements, and the preferences of the development and operations teams.
Popular operating systems used in tech stacks include Windows, macOS, Linux (with various distributions), and specialized OS variants for embedded systems and servers. Each has its strengths and weaknesses, making it suitable for different scenarios for your project.
Server: The Digital Command Center
Next, we have your tech stack’s command center—the server. It’s the trusty sentinel, whether a physical machine or a virtual one, where your software finds its home.
Popular choices include Apache, Nginx, and IIS. These servers can manage incoming requests, route traffic, and stand guard over your application’s security. Each web server has its own characteristics, advantages, and use cases.
Apache HTTP Server (Apache)
Apache, also known as Apache HTTP Server, is one of the world’s most widely used open-source web server software. It’s known for its stability, flexibility, and robustness.
Use Cases: Apache is versatile and can be used for a wide range of web applications, including static websites, dynamic web applications, and content management systems (CMS) like WordPress.
Features: Apache supports multiple modules and configurations, making it highly customizable. It can serve various types of content, handle SSL/TLS encryption, and support multiple authentication methods.
Pros: Long history, strong community support, extensive documentation, and compatibility with various operating systems.
Nginx (pronounced “engine-x”) is an open-source web server and reverse proxy server known for its performance, efficiency, and scalability.
Use Cases: Nginx is often used as a reverse proxy, load balancer, or HTTP cache in front of application servers. It is well-suited for handling many concurrent connections and static content.
Features: Nginx is event-driven and non-blocking, making it highly efficient in serving static files and proxying requests to backend servers. It is often chosen for high-traffic websites and applications.
Pros: High performance, low resource consumption, excellent for handling concurrent connections, and suitable for microservices architectures.
Internet Information Services (IIS)
IIS is Microsoft’s web server software designed for Windows Server environments. It is tightly integrated with the Windows OS.
Use Cases: IIS is the preferred choice for hosting web applications and services on Windows servers. It is commonly used for ASP.NET applications and services.
Features: IIS offers features like integrated Windows authentication, ASP.NET and .NET Core applications support, and integration with other Microsoft technologies.
Pros: Seamless integration with Windows environments, strong support for Microsoft technologies, and user-friendly management tools.
Many tech stacks use a combination of these web servers based on their strengths and compatibility with specific components.
Database: Where Data Finds its Sanctuary
Now, let’s dive into the treasure trove of your tech stack—the database. It’s the sanctuary where your application’s data resides.
Your options are diverse for this one. You can choose relational databases like MySQL, PostgreSQL, and Microsoft SQL Server. Or you can explore NoSQL databases like MongoDB, Cassandra, or Redis. This tech stack component shapes how your data is stored and retrieved.
Backend Programming Language: The Brains Behind the Curtain
Behind the scenes, your backend programming language does all the work. That is why it’s considered a pivotal tech stack component.
Some commonly used backend programming languages in tech stacks include:
- Python: This language is widely used in various domains, including web development, data science, and automation. It has a rich ecosystem of libraries and frameworks.
- Java: Known for its scalability and performance, it’s often used in enterprise-level applications and microservices architectures.
- Ruby: The language appreciated by many for its developer-friendly syntax. It’s commonly used in web development, especially with the Ruby on Rails framework.
- Go (Golang): A language known for its speed and efficiency, making it a suitable choice for building high-performance applications, microservices, and network services.
- PHP: Has a strong presence in web development, particularly in the context of content management systems like WordPress.
- C#: Commonly used with the .NET framework and is popular in Windows-based application development, game development (with Unity), and web development (with ASP.NET).
- Rust: A language gaining popularity due to its focus on memory safety and performance. It is often chosen for systems programming and specific web applications.
Choosing your backend programming language should align with your project’s goals, requirements, and constraints. The language’s suitability ensures a successful development process and a robust, scalable, and maintainable backend for your tech stack.
Backend Framework: Building Blocks of Functionality
Your tech stack isn’t complete without the building blocks of functionality—backend frameworks. These frameworks provide structure to your server-side applications.
Are you still deciding what framework to use? Check out this list for more insights.
- Express.js—A minimal and flexible web application framework ideal for building web and mobile applications, APIs, and microservices.
- Koa—Modern, lightweight framework for building applications and APIs in Node.js. It focuses on async/await and provides more control over the middleware.
- Nest.js—A progressive framework for building efficient and scalable server-side applications. It uses TypeScript and follows a modular, Angular-inspired architecture.
- Django—A high-level Python web framework that encourages rapid development and clean, pragmatic design. It includes built-in features like authentication, ORM, and an admin panel.
- Flask—This lightweight web framework is known for its simplicity and flexibility. It’s often used for building small to medium-sized web applications and APIs.
- FastAPI—This modern, high-performance web framework is good for building APIs. It’s designed for automatic OpenAPI and JSON Schema generation.
- Ruby on Rails (Rails)—A robust and opinionated framework for building web applications in Ruby. It follows the Model-View-Controller (MVC) architecture and promotes convention over configuration.
- Sinatra—This lightweight Ruby framework can help you build web applications with minimal overhead. It’s often used for simple projects or prototypes.
- Spring Boot—A widely used Java framework for building production-ready, stand-alone, and production-grade applications. It simplifies the setup and development of Java applications.
- Play Framework—A reactive and lightweight Java and Scala framework for building web and mobile applications. It emphasizes developer productivity and asynchronous programming.
- Laravel—A modern, elegant PHP framework for web application development. It includes features like an ORM, routing, authentication, and a Blade templating engine.
- Symfony—A high-performance PHP framework known for its modularity and robustness. It provides a wide range of reusable components for building web applications.
- ASP.NET Core—A cross-platform, high-performance framework for building modern, cloud-based, and web applications using C#. It’s a continuation of ASP.NET but with enhanced features.
- Gin—A minimalistic and fast Go web framework. It’s designed for building high-performance APIs and microservices.
- Echo—A lightweight and fast Go web framework inspired by Sinatra. It’s known for its simplicity and speed, making it suitable for small to medium-sized projects.
- Rocket—A web framework for Rust that emphasizes ease of use and developer productivity. It provides a set of macros for defining routes and handling HTTP requests.
- Actix—A high-performance, actor-based Rust framework for building web applications. It’s designed to handle high levels of concurrent connections.
It’s good practice to experiment with different frameworks to see what fits your project’s requirements and your team’s preferences best.
APIs: The Connectors of the Digital World
Another tech stack component bridges your application and the digital world. This component is called API (Application Programming Interface). APIs define the rules and protocols for how different software entities can request and exchange data and functionality.
Whether you’re talking to external services or orchestrating a microservices architecture internally, APIs enable seamless communication.
Frontend Programming Language: The User-Facing Palette
On the user-facing side, we have the frontend programming language—another crucial tech stack component. It’s the palette you use to build the user interface.
Here are some popular frontend programming languages and technologies.
- HTML: It’s not a programming language but a markup language used to structure the content of web pages. It defines the layout and structure of your web documents.
- CSS: This is used to style and format the layout and appearance of web pages. It complements HTML by controlling elements’ colors, fonts, spacing, and positioning.
- Dart: It’s a language developed by Google, primarily known for its use in building web applications with the Flutter framework for mobile and web.
- PHP: While primarily a server-side language, PHP can also be used for server-side rendering of web pages, generating HTML dynamically.
- Python: Like PHP, Python can be used for server-side rendering through web frameworks like Django or Flask.
- Java: This can also be used for server-side rendering in web applications using frameworks like JavaServer Faces (JSF) or Java Servlets.
Frontend Framework: Crafting User Experiences
To help you craft those captivating user experiences, frontend frameworks can help you. This tech stack component provides relevant tools and structure. It can help you build interactive and dynamic interfaces more easily.
Some popular frontend frameworks include the ones listed below.
Key Features: Virtual DOM for efficient rendering, strong community support, extensive ecosystem, and integration with state management libraries like Redux and MobX.
Key Features: Two-way data binding, component-based architecture, powerful CLI (Command Line Interface), and robust testing tools.
Key Features: Reactive data binding, component-based development, simple and intuitive API, and a growing community.
Key Features: Minimal runtime, easy-to-learn syntax, excellent performance, and no virtual DOM.
Key Features: Convention over configuration, a powerful templating engine, Ember CLI for project setup and development, and a strong focus on stability.
Version Control: Keeping Chaos at Bay
Tech stack components don’t just end with coding. They extend into collaboration and control.
Enter version control tools like Git and platforms like GitHub or GitLab. These techs keep the chaos at bay, ensuring everyone on the development team is on the same page.
DevOps Tools: Automating the Magic
Now, let’s talk automation with DevOps tools. The tech stack components of Jenkins, Travis CI, and CircleCI help you automate software development and IT operations. They make continuous integration and continuous delivery possible.
Containerization: Packaging for the Digital World
In the age of scalability and portability, containerization is the buzzword. Tech stack components like Docker and Kubernetes are the go-to tools for developers. These techs package your applications and their dependencies for easy deployment and scaling.
Cloud Services: Scaling to the Clouds
For those who dream big, cloud services like AWS, Azure, and GCP are your tech stack’s best friends. They provide the infrastructure, storage, and many services that simplify scaling and hosting applications.
Monitoring and Logging: Keeping Watchful Eyes
What monitoring and logging tools are available for you? Prometheus, Grafana, ELK Stack (Elasticsearch, Logstash, Kibana), and New Relic are just some of your options. They keep watchful eyes on your application’s performance, ready to leap into action when trouble strikes.
Security Tools: The Guardians of Safety
Security is paramount to any tech product. That is why security tools are the must-have guardians of your tech stack. Firewalls, intrusion detection systems, authentication, and authorization libraries are the tech stack components that protect your application from potential threats.
Deployment and Orchestration: The Show Must Go On
With proper deployment and orchestration tools in your tech stack components, your product goes to the market without a hitch. Tools like Ansible, Puppet, and Terraform automate infrastructure provisioning and application deployment, making releases smoother.
Testing and Quality Assurance: The Quality Checkpoint
Consider quality assurance as the checkpoint before your application goes live. Tech stack components like Selenium, Jest, JUnit, or PyTest are your trusty allies in the battle against bugs. These tools ensure your software performs as intended.
Content Delivery Network: Speeding Up Delivery
For lightning-fast content delivery, tech stack components like Akamai or Cloudflare are the speedsters of the digital realm. They cache content at edge locations, making your application lightning-fast and responsive.
Database Management Tools: The Database Whisperers
Managing databases can be daunting, but tech stack components like phpMyAdmin, pgAdmin, or SQL Server Management Studio make it a breeze. They provide user-friendly interfaces for handling complex database operations.
Development Environment: The Coder’s Playground
Your best choices are integrated Development Environments (IDEs) like Visual Studio Code, PyCharm, or IntelliJ IDEA. These tech stack components make coding, debugging, and testing more manageable.
Documentation and Tools: Keeping the Project Shipshape
Documentation and collaboration tools like Confluence, Jira, Slack, and Microsoft Teams help organize your project. They facilitate project management, collaboration, and documentation.
Full Scale and Our Tech Stack Components
Building robust and scalable applications requires a well-thought-out tech stack. Your tech stack components are your tools to realize your goals. So, choose your tech stack components wisely, for they will shape your project’s success.
Do you need help with your tech project? We’ve got you covered! Full Scale has the people, platform, and process to help build your software product.
Our team has expert and experienced developers, testers, and leaders. And we are savvy in determining what tech stack components best fit your requirements so you don’t waste money and resources. Moreover, we only use the latest tech to ensure your product hits all the marks on your checklist.
What are you waiting for?